Inborn or congenital and acquired immunodeficiency

Before we go any further with Immunodeficiency, let's consider that the immune system may reveal several shortcomings in its functioning resulting in some sort of “imbalance” and diseases as a result. By immunological deficiency, let’s understand here, the immune system deficiencies, the absence of T lymphocytes or deficit of these cells that causes the individual a greater sensitivity to viruses and intracellular bacterial infections and the absence of B-lymphocytes, which subject the individual to extracellular infections caused by many bacteria; the deficiency of phagocytes or other participants of the immune system.

Because all agents of the immune system interact, if just one of them is missing (or not properly working) all defense lines are disturbed. For this same reason, some diseases result from the inability of the immune system to respond effectively to agents that threaten the body and generally mean: immunological deficiency.

immunological deficiency can be congenital or acquired .

Inborn or congenital immunodeficiency

The lack of T lymphocytes translates into a greater sensitivity to intracellular pathogens, viruses and cancers and the lack of B lymphocytes translates into a greater sensitivity to extracellular infections. The severe combined immunological deficiency(SCID) is characterized by the absence of lymphocytes B and T. patients are extremely vulnerable and only survive in completely sterile environments

The treatment of this immunological deficiency, it can be done through the bone marrow transplant or gene therapy.

AIDS-acquired immunodeficiency

HIV Virus

AIDS is caused by human immunological deficiency virus, HIV. HIV is a RNA virus (retrovirus) that infects primarily lymphocytes T (H), but also other lymphocytes, macrophages and cells of the nervous system. The body reacts to viral infection and could identify three stages:

•Primo-infection: occurs the quick proliferation of the virus and a decrease in population of helper T lymphocytes;

•Lag phase (asymptomatic)-the situation stabilizes for several years, settling a balance where the immune response limits the development of the virus. Are produced many antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes to proliferate that kill infected cells;

•Stage of immunological deficiency(symptomatic phase)-the immune system does not respond properly, the viral load increases, the number of lymphocytes T drastically low, settling opportunistic infections.

Inside the host cell, the viral RNA is transcribed to DNA by reverse transcriptase and DNA is integrated in the genome. When active, the viral DNA directs the production of new viruses that cause the destruction of host cell and infect new cells. The progressive decrease in the number of lymphocytes T leaves the body very susceptible to opportunistic diseases and cancers.

HIV graphic

An HIV infected individual reacts to his presence by producing antibodies-says-if HIV-positive.

Viruses that are within cells can transmit HIV.

HIV virus

Currently, there is no cure or vaccine for the disease, but its progression can be treated by reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs (AZT) and of proteases and inhibitors of virus binding to host cells. Since the available treatments are not curative, targeting only delaying the reproduction of the virus, you should bet heavily on prevention, avoiding risky behavior.

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