immune response system

immune response system means how your immune system reacts or respond to an invasion. It is the process of protecting you from any foreign agents which could be viruses, bacteria, anything harmful. Sometimes you will find this process being called “humoral immune response” or “humoral immunity” but it is the same immune response system and it comprehends a series of events, cells invading while others take action to defend... This is one of those situations when you notice the immune system presence: it is working; the other one would be when the immune response system is not working We have already seen what T-cells and Natural killer Cells are in the “immune cells” section as well as Macrophages, Granulocytes and Dendritic Cells. You might want to review "immune Organs” too.

I would like to mention two other concepts before moving forward:

Antigen and Antibodies

Antigen (Presenting Cells) Antigens are anything that can stimulate an immune response in your body. They are usually described as anything that your body recognizes as foreign, or not belonging to you. In one part of the immune response, the B cells manufacture antibodies to fight off the antigens. They are produced by your B cells and are shaped in such a way that they are able to attach to antigens and remove them from the body.

Antibodies An antibody is a protein produced by a host to bind to, and thus inactivate, foreign particles. The particle is called the antigen. It is frequently but not always a protein. The binding of antibody to antigen is very specific, so that, if all goes well, the antibody binds to that specific antigen only. The part of the antigen molecule to which the antibody binds is called the epitope.

inflammatory response An inflammatory response (inflammation) occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause. The damaged tissue releases chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, and serotonin. These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling. This helps isolate the foreign substance from further contact with body tissues.

The chemicals also attract white blood cells called phagocytes that "eat" microorganisms and dead or damaged cells. This process is called phagocytosis. Phagocytes eventually die. Pus is formed from a collection of dead tissue, dead bacteria, and live and dead phagocytes.



Immune system disorders occur when the immune response is inappropriate, excessive, or lacking. Allergies involve an immune response to a substance that, in the majority of people, the body perceives as harmless. For more information, see:

•Allergies •Autoimmune disorders •Immunodeficiency
IMMUNIZATION Vaccination (immunization) is a way to trigger the immune response. Small doses of an antigen, such as dead or weakened live viruses, are given to activate immune system "memory" (activated B cells and sensitized T cells). Memory allows your body to react quickly and efficiently to future exposures.

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